it exposes a
rational argument
emotion & sentiment
the object of the sentence
wrt the main topic is...
the target is being
Labeling the object of the
propaganda campaign as either
something the target audience
fears, hates, finds undesirable or
loves, praises.
it uses
emotional words
Using specific words and phrases
with strong emotional implications to
influence an audience
Either representing something in
an excessive manner: making
things larger, better, worse or
making something seem less
important or smaller than
it really is.
Playing on strong national
feeling (or to any group; e.g., race,
gender, political preference) to
justify or promote an action or idea.
Questioning the credibility of
someone or something.
Seeking to build support for an
idea by instilling anxiety and/or
panic in the population towards
an alternative. In some cases the
support is built based on
preconceived judgements.
A brief and striking phrase that may
include labeling and stereotyping.
Slogans tend to act as emotional
it tries to
persuade you
do you need external
information to judge?
stop judging
this fragment
it tries to simplify
the problem...
Assuming a single cause or
reason when there are actually
multiple causes for an issue.
It includes transferring blame
to one person or group of
people without investigating
the complexities of the issue
Presenting two alternative options
as the only possibilities, when in
fact more possibilities exist. As an
the extreme case, tell the
audience exactly what actions to
take, eliminating any other
possible choices (Dictatorship).
it adds irrelevant
data or changes
the argument
A technique that attempts
to discredit an opponent's
position by charging them
with hypocrisy without
directly disproving their
Introducing irrelevant material
to the issue being discussed,
so that everyone's attention
is diverted away from the
points made.
(straw men): when an opponent's
proposition is substituted with a
similar one which is then refuted
in place of the original proposition.
NO propaganda technique
has been spotted
Propaganda identification flowchart
News Project | ALT-QCRI
Version: 2.2
June, 2018
Stating that a claim is true simply
because a valid authority or
expert on the issue said it was
true, without any other supporting
evidence offered. We consider the
special case in which the
reference is not an authority or
an expert in this technique.
Words or phrases that discourage
critical thought and meaningful
discussion about a given topic.
They are typically short, generic
sentences that offer seemingly
simple answers to complex
questions or that distract
attention away from other lines
of thought.
Attempting to persuade the target
audience to join in and take the
course of action because "everyone
else is taking the same action"
Persuading an audience to
disapprove an action or idea by
suggesting that the idea is
popular with groups hated in
contempt by the target audience.
It can refer to any person or
concept with a negative
Repeating the same message over
and over again so that the audience
will eventually accept it.
Using words which are deliberately
not clear so that the audience
may have its own interpretations.
For example when an unclear
phrase with multiple definitions is
used within the argument and,
therefore, it does not support the
is it stating
obvious but too
abstract things?
without a
concrete argument
to prove
an argument
the person with
different position
by presenting only a
subset of the options
a third
by reducing a complex
problem to only one cause
by showing support
from a reference
to approve
by discouraging critical thought
and meaningful discussion
to disapprove